The Wellhead Water Solutions SolidStream B-30 Biocide is a Chlorine Dioxide system used to kill bacteria that are found in frac water. Chlorine Dioxide is an oxidizing biocide which achieves its activity through oxidation (destruction) of cellular “machinery”. It is a yellowish gas that is quite soluble in water and is a common replacement for bleach, especially in the pulp and paper industry. The oxidation potential is much lower than bleach (+ 1.4 V vs + 0.7 V), which allows chlorine dioxide to be no more corrosive to equipment than normal water. It kills microorganisms by disruption of nutrients across the cell wall and by disruption of metabolic processes. This means that bacteria cannot build a resistance or immunity to it, making it as effective on the 100th frac job as it was on the 1st.
The chlorine dioxide molecule remains as a true gas in solution, which means it is more energetic and has the ability to reach all points in the system. Because it is a true gas and soluble in virtually anything, including most hydrocarbons and emulsions, it can penetrate bacterial slime layers (biofilm) where it oxidizes the polysaccharide matrix, which glues the biofilm together. On reaction it reduces to the chlorite ion, which sits in any remaining biofilm.
If the biofilm attempts to grow again, an acidic environment exists which ‘kicks’ the chlorite ion back to Chlorine Dioxide, resulting in a “delayed action” kill of any remaining biofilm. The Wellhead Water Solutions SolidStream B-30 Biocide uses a system that pumps into the frac manifold, treating water as it enters the frac tanks. Pumping biocide via the manifold ensures excellent mixing of chemical and incoming water and allows our biocide 20 to 40 minutes of contact time before mixing with other frac chemicals and sand at the blender. With a typical kill time of less than 10 minutes for the full volume of water, this ensures that no live bacteria are pumped downhole. It is, simply put, the most effective means of killing bacteria in frac water available today.